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Roofing Materials


Roofing materials are designed to protect the house from the elements. These materials include shingles, shakes, metal roofing, clay tiles, sheathing paper and flashings. The failure of any of the materials or poor installation practices, can result in premature deterioration and leakage.

This section deals with water leakage that is caused by improper installation and by structural problems. It also covers premature deterioration of roofing materials due to interior conditions or to the elements.

Various types of roofing materials are discussed in this section including asphalt shingles, wood shingles, wood shakes, metal roofing, concrete tiles and clay tiles. The flashings are equally important as they work with the roofing materials to make a tight membrane. Step flashings, valley flashings, cricket roofs and vent flashings are all addressed.

Ice damming and eave protection are also covered in this section as are the requirements for proper installation of attic and ceiling insulation and ventilation.

Area Primary Consideration Problem Cause

Roofing Materials

Structural Deterioration And Damage

Broken asphalt shingles.

Winds can lift shingle tabs, causing them to break.

Curled asphalt shingles

Water vapor penetration

Deterioration of asphalt shingle surface

Sunlight and high roof temperatures can cause differential hardening of the asphalt material through the shingle.

Shingle deformation and displacement

Improper or inadequate roof deck or improper fastening of shingles.

Rotting of wood roofing; rusting of metal roofing

Condensation on the underside of the roofing.

Cracked concrete or clay roof tiles

Damage by workers during construction.

Water Leakage

Flashing Failures

Inadequate size and improper installation of flashings.

Water penetration from ice damming

Inadequate eave protection

Water leakage through wood roofing

Excessive exposure length, no interlay between shake courses, and improper joint locations.

Water leakage of metal roofing

Thermal movement

Additional information on roofs and roofing